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MULTIPLE MYELOMA DIAGNOSIS
Biognosys Technologies India Pvt Ltd
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of a type of WBC called plasma cells. Lymphocytes (lymph cells) are one of the main types of white blood cells in the immune system and include T cells and B cells.
When B cells respond to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells. Plasma cells make the antibodies (immunoglobulins) that help the body to protect from infections.
When plasma cells become cancerous, the condition is called multiple myeloma. The plasma cells make an abnormal antibody known by different names like monoclonal immunoglobulin, monoclonal protein (M-protein), M-spike, or paraprotein.
There are other plasma cell disorders other than multiple myeloma. They include:
- Monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS)
- Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM)
- Solitary plasmacytoma
- Light chain amyloidosis.
In multiple myeloma, the overgrowth of plasma cells in the bone marrow can crowd out normal blood-forming cells. It may leads to
- Anemia (a shortage of red blood cells),
- Thrombocytopenia (decrease in platelets), and
- Leukopenia (decrease in normal WBC)
- Bones break down and increase in Calcium levels in blood.
- Decrease in Immunity and prone to infections
- Over production of plasma cell proteins may cause kidney damage
Lab tests for Multiple Myeloma include Flowcytometry, Clinical Electrophoresis, Cytogenetics, Functional and Immunological assays.